Brazil’s New Government Works to Reverse Amazon Deforestation

RIO DE JANEIRO —Shaking a traditional rattle, Brazil’s incoming head of Indigenous affairs recently walked through every corner of the agency’s headquarters — even its coffee room — as she invoked help from ancestors during a ritual cleansing.카지노사이트

The ritual carried extra meaning for Joenia Wapichana, Brazil’s first Indigenous woman to command the agency charged with protecting the Amazon rainforest and its people. Once she is sworn in next month under newly inaugurated President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Wapichana promises to clean house at an agency that critics say has allowed the Amazon’s resources to be exploited at the expense of the environment.

As Wapichana performed the ritual, Indigenous people and government officials enthusiastically chanted “Yoohoo! Funai is ours!’’ — a reference to the agency she will lead.

Environmentalists, Indigenous people and voters sympathetic to their causes were important to Lula’s narrow victory over former President Jair Bolsonaro. Now Lula is seeking to fulfill campaign pledges he made to them on a wide range of issues, from expanding Indigenous territories to halting a surge in illegal deforestation.

To carry out these goals, Lula is appointing well-known environmentalists and Indigenous people to key positions at Funai and other agencies that Bolsonaro had filled with allies of agribusiness and military officers.

In Lula’s previous two terms as president, he had a mixed record on environmental and Indigenous issues. And he is certain to face obstacles from pro-Bolsonaro state governors who still control swaths of the Amazon. But experts say Lula is taking the right first steps.

The federal officials Lula has already named to key posts “have the national and international prestige to reverse all the environmental destruction that we have suffered over these four years of the Bolsonaro government,” said George Porto Ferreira, an analyst at Ibama, Brazil’s environmental law-enforcement agency.

Bolsonaro’s supporters, meanwhile, fear that Lula’s promise of stronger environmental protections will hurt the economy by reducing the amount of land open for development and punish people for activities that had previously been allowed. Some supporters with ties to agribusiness have been accused of providing financial and logistical assistance to rioters who earlier this month stormed Brazil’s presidential palace, Congress and Supreme Court.

When Bolsonaro was president, he defanged Funai and other agencies responsible for environmental oversight. This enabled deforestation to soar to its highest level since 2006, as developers and miners who took land from Indigenous people faced few consequences.

Between 2019 and 2022, the number of fines handed out for illegal activities in the Amazon declined by 38% compared with the previous four years, according to an analysis of Brazilian government data by the Climate Observatory, a network of environmental nonprofit groups.

One of the strongest signs yet of Lula’s intentions to reverse these trends was his decision to return Marina Silva to lead the country’s environmental ministry. Silva formerly held the job between 2003 and 2008, a period when deforestation declined by 53%. A former rubber-tapper from Acre state, Silva resigned after clashing with government and agribusiness leaders over environmental policies she deemed to be too lenient.바카라사이트

Silva strikes a strong contrast with Bolsonaro’s first environment minister, Ricardo Salles, who had never set foot in the Amazon when he took office in 2019 and resigned two years later following allegations that he had facilitated the export of illegally felled timber.

Other measures Lula has taken in support of the Amazon and its people include:

— Signing a decree that would rejuvenate the most significant international effort to preserve the rainforest — the Amazon Fund. The fund, which Bolsonaro had gutted, has received more than $1.2 billion, mostly from Norway, to help pay for sustainable development of the Amazon.

— Revoking a Bolsonaro decree that allowed mining in Indigenous and environmental protection areas.

— Creating a Ministry of Indigenous Peoples, which will oversee everything from land boundaries to education. This ministry will be led by Sônia Guajajara, the country’s first Indigenous woman in such a high government post.

“It won’t be easy to overcome 504 years in only four years. But we are willing to use this moment to promote a take-back of Brazil’s spiritual force,” Guajajara said during her induction ceremony, which was delayed by the damage pro-Bolsonaro rioters caused to the presidential palace.

The Amazon rainforest, which covers an area twice the size of India, acts as a buffer against climate change by absorbing large amounts of carbon dioxide. But Bolsonaro viewed management of the Amazon as an internal affair, causing Brazil’s global reputation to take a hit. Lula is trying to undo that damage.

During the U.N.’s climate summit in Egypt in November, Lula pledged to end all deforestation by 2030 and announced his country’s intention to host the COP30 climate conference in 2025. Brazil had been scheduled to host the event in 2019, but Bolsonaro canceled it in 2018 right after he was elected.

While Lula has ambitious environmental goals, the fight to protect the Amazon faces complex hurdles. For example, getting cooperation from local officials won’t be easy.

Six out of nine Amazonian states are run by Bolsonaro allies. Those include Rondonia, where settlers of European descent control local power and have dismantled environmental legislation through the state assembly; and Acre, where a lack of economic opportunities is driving rubber-tappers who had long fought to preserve the rainforest to take up cattle grazing instead.

The Amazon has also been plagued for decades by illegal gold mining, which employs tens of thousands of people in Brazil and other countries, such as Peru and Venezuela. The illegal mining causes mercury contamination of rivers that Indigenous peoples rely on for fishing and drinking.

One area where Lula has more control is in designating Indigenous territories, which are the best-preserved regions in the Amazon.

Lula is under pressure to create 13 new Indigenous territories — a process that had stalled under Bolsonaro, who kept his promise not to grant “one more inch” of land to Indigenous peoples.온라인카지노


Can you Play Casino Around the World

If you want to know whether you can play casino games in a particular country, read this article. You will learn about the age requirements, number of casinos in a particular country, and the culture. You can also learn about the gambling regulations in each country and how you can stay away from the pitfalls. 카지노사이트

Age requirements to play casino games

The age requirements for playing casino games around the world vary slightly, but in most cases, they are 18 or older. However, there are some countries that do not allow gambling at all. For example, Brazil has made gambling illegal since 1948. There are also certain countries in Asia that do allow gambling, including Singapore, Japan, and South Korea.

The age requirements for gambling vary by country, but they tend to follow the trends within the continent. For instance, countries in the European Union are generally consistent in their stance, while African countries are still developing markets and show less uniformity. In the United States, the laws vary a bit depending on the location.

While online casinos can’t enforce an age limit, land-based casinos usually have one. Casinos in Canada, for example, require a player to be at least 18 years old to enter. In addition, they often require a valid ID before allowing anyone under the age of 21 to play.

Locations of casinos

When it comes to gambling, the world is full of exciting choices. Many countries have casinos, and there are many ways to experience the thrill of casino gambling. Some countries have more than one casino, while others have only a handful of them. Some of the most well-known casinos in the world are located in Europe.

China, India, and the United States are among the countries with the most casinos. In the United States, Las Vegas and Macau are the most popular. In the Philippines, Entertainment City in Paranaque is sort of a miniature Macau. However, you should be responsible when gambling in any casino.

Macau is a gambling haven and is home to some of the largest casinos in the world. The Venetian, for instance, features 376,000 square feet of gaming space and 1,760 slot machines. It is also a popular destination for travelers who wish to experience the thrill of gambling.

Number of casinos in a country

The US is one of the world’s leading gambling countries, with over 900,000 slots and more than a half million jobs directly generated by the industry. In addition to Las Vegas, US casinos generate over $70 billion in revenue annually. While the US is still in its early stages of online gambling development, the country boasts hundreds of land-based casinos, many of them concentrated in Las Vegas and nearby regions.바카라사이트

In addition to the US, Canada has 216 casinos. Despite its small size, the country has many popular gambling destinations, including Niagara Falls. Canada is also home to many smaller casinos and Indian-run casinos. While there are fewer casinos per capita in the US, Canadians have plenty to choose from.

France is the third-largest country for casinos, but the country has a completely different gambling scene than North America. Many of the casinos are old and gilded in gold, making them very different from the more modern gambling establishments in North America. Some of the country’s oldest venues date back to 1912. Other famous French casinos are the Casino Palais de la Méditerranée in Nice, which opened in 1929. The Casino Partouche des Evaux-les-Bains was opened in 1912. And the Casino Barriere deauville opened in 1912.온라인카지노


5 ways to travel better in 2023 — and maybe save some money doing it

The start of a new year brings fresh opportunities, and that includes travel.카지노사이트

People are figuring out where they’d like to go and what they need to do in order to make successful trips happen.

Now is a good time to apply for or renew a passport and sign up for a Trusted Traveler program such as Global Entry or TSA PreCheck — or check to make sure your enrollment isn’t expiring soon. It’s also a good time to consider whether visiting must-see Arizona destinations in off-peak times or getting a credit card with improved travel perks is right for you.

Here are five things to do right now to enjoy traveling more in 2023.

  1. Apply for or renew your passport right away

Demand for international travel is apparent as airlines add more flights from Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport. American Airlines will introduce new service to Monterrey, Mexico, in January and ultra-low-cost carrier Lynx Air will enter the market with flights between Sky Harbor and Calgary, the largest city in Alberta, Canada, starting in February.

If you’ve booked an international trip or are planning one for the not-so-distant future, get your passport as soon as possible if you don’t already have it. The U.S. Department of State estimates travelers can expect to wait six to nine weeks for routine passport processing and three to five weeks for expedited processing. These times may increase if demand surges.

If you have a passport, check the expiration date. Passports are valid for 10 years. If yours is expired or close to expiring, renew it as soon as possible. Some countries won’t let you enter if your passport is near expiration. That window varies by country, so check the travel requirements of your destination if your passport has less than one year remaining.

  1. Make sure your PreCheck or Global Entry is current

Passports aren’t the only travel tools that can expire. Now is good time to check how much time remains on your Trusted Traveler program enrollment.

These programs help speed you through security and immigration lines. Enrollment, which requires going through an interview, lasts five years and can be renewed the year before it expires.

The Transportation Security Administration offers PreCheck ($85). U.S. Customs and Border Protection administers Global Entry, NEXUS and SENTRI. Global Entry ($100) allows expedited entry into the U.S. from international destinations. SENTRI ($122.25) expedites entry to the U.S. from Canada and Mexico. NEXUS ($50) allows expedited entry to the U.S. from Canada.

Applying or renewing well in advance is key. PreCheck processing can take up to two months in some cases, though most applicants receive their Known Traveler Number within three to five days. The process for the CPB programs could take as long as six to 18 months, and interview availability is limited.

Arizona has eight PreCheck enrollment centers, at Sky Harbor Airport, Staples locations at Camelback Colonnade in Phoenix and Arrowhead Crossing in Peoria, and IdentoGo locations in Gilbert, Sun City, Casa Grande, Tucson and Flagstaff.

Arizona has five enrollment centers for the CPB programs: Sky Harbor Airport, Tucson International Airport and the port of entry offices in Douglas, Nogales and San Luis. You can check interview appointment availability before applying; to do so, visit

If your Global Entry is close to expiration and you have a filed your renewal application, you can use it past the expiration date for up to two years, according to Homeland Security.

  1. Consider getting a credit card with travel perks

Credit cards with perks like airline miles, hotel points or cash back for purchases can supplement your travel budget.바카라사이트

The Capital One Venture Rewards card, for example, offers 2 miles per dollar on every purchase, 5 miles per dollar on hotels and rental cars booked through Capital One travel, and an introductory offer of 75,000 bonus miles when you spend $4,000 on purchases in the first three months of the account. Other cards have different combinations of benefits that may suit your needs.

Be aware that many of these credit cards have annual fees, like Venture Rewards’ $95 per year. Some cards have no enrollment fees, like Chase Freedom Unlimited, which currently has an introductory offer of 6.5% cash back on travel purchases made with the card in the user’s first year.

  1. Visit Arizona’s hottest destinations in the offseason

It might feel like Sedona, Flagstaff and the Grand Canyon are always crowded. But a comfortable experience is possible if you travel when people are less likely to go.

The spring and fall months tend to be the busiest times to visit Sedona, while fewer tourists are likely in summer and winter. Data from the Sedona Chamber of Commerce confirms this — bed tax collections in the 2021-22 fiscal year were highest in spring and fall, peaking at just over $1 million in May 2022.

The Grand Canyon is busiest from the late spring to the early fall, with this past summer averaging around 500,000 visitors in each peak-season month, according to the National Park Service. October through March typically is less busy, though people who visit during the winter months should be aware of winter weather hazards and plan for snowy and icy conditions.

  1. Consider flying from Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport instead of Sky Harbor

As the main airport serving metro Phoenix, Sky Harbor International is where most of the region’s leisure and business travelers fly.

But for residents of the eastern part of Phoenix and cities including Chandler, Gilbert, Mesa, Tempe, Apache Junction and Queen Creek, Phoenix-Mesa Gateway Airport may win out over Sky Harbor for its convenient location and smaller, easily navigable size.

The east Mesa airport continues to experience record-setting passenger growth, and October 2022’s passenger count of 150,846 people marked a 15% increase from the same month in 2021.

Gateway Airport continues to evolve to keep pace with airline industry and regional growth. It recently began work on a 30,000-square-foot terminal extension that will add new gates, a glass walkway, a tech lounge and restaurants and shops upon its expected completion in 2024.

Gateway Airport is targeted toward leisure travelers. Be aware that its airlines — the biggest one is Allegiant Air — offer flights only on certain days, not every day. Parking is cheaper than at Sky Harbor — $13 per day in the main daily lot just south of the terminal, $11 in a covered economy lot and $9 in an uncovered economy lot — but travelers should still give themselves plenty of time to find a spot and get to the terminal.온라인카지노



Through a network of 67 partner banks across Japan, Smartpay Bank Direct delivers convenience and security for the consumer by using Japan’s open banking system.카지노사이트

Founded in June 2021 by former executives of Instagram, Standard Chartered Bank, Facebook, Stripe, Adyen, and Mastercard across the Asia Pacific, and Middle East, and North Africa (MENA) regions, Smartpay seeks to transform the digital consumer landscape with reliable financial products and payment solutions.

Japan is the third wealthiest country in the world and has one of the highest credit card penetration rates in Asia, with over 60% of transactions completed in cash.

Smartpay to bring about paperless payment system in Japan
Smartpay’s application supports the transformation of a cash-based society into a digital one. The company’s strategy was built in two phases. The first phase was focused on financial inclusion, and helping those that don’t have access to credit, to join the digital BNPL economy. It also solved the issue of cash usage and created a platform and an ecosystem to move towards a paperless payment system.

Smartpay is moving into the next phase of its digital consumer finance journey, which is focused on targeting middle and high-income users and offering them smart financial solutions that are safe, convenient, fast and create real value for the entire ecosystem. These are low-risk and high-value customers with average transaction value of USD200, non-performing loan (NPL) rates of less than 1%, and who want to avoid a bad credit rating and nonpayment on debt obligations. The monthly repeat rate of these consumers has already reached approximately 20%.

Sam Ahmed, Founder and Chief Executive Officer at Smartpay, said: “We believe we are driving digital consumer finance to the next phase of its maturity. ‘Buy now, pay later’ has had to grow up from the prospective of a business model, profitability, and consumer value proposition.

Tai Iguchi, Chief Executive of TRiCERA, said: “We knew we were on the right track when our key merchant. You are the Apple of digital consumer finance, your UX is beautifully designed and makes the consumer feel like you trust them, and respect who they are. This is in a market where other consumer finance companies have made customers feel they are not trusted and undervalued.”

Smartpay to focus on Japan, Saudi Arabia, and UAE
Smartpay will first focus on Japan, Saudi Arabia and UAE markets, but over the medium term the firm will look towards Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and other markets in Southeast Asia and MENA.

Smartpay’s business model features:바카라사이트

Specific consumer psychographics which include a tech savvy population, smartphone and internet access, high disposable income, increased consumption, and high rates of tech adaption
An economy that is undergoing a digital transformation
Merchants that need help to accelerate a successful digital transformation
Legacy banks that have been disrupted by digital first solutions which have taken away their relevance and limited access to key consumer data
Governments and regulators that want to work with established digital financial solutions that have existing global partnerships (proof of quality and security) and credible local partners (proof of local interests)
Smartpay has realized that the ideal customer is a high-income consumer that wants control of their monthly budgeting and wants to extend the monthly cash flow without paying fees and interest. These customers want to engage with a brand that is custom built for their usage instead of a one-size-fits-all approach that is for consumers who actually want to borrow money. Instead, Smartpay a brand that is designed for their income group, and designed for smart money management, versus “non-savings” money management.

Japan’s first BNPL solution payable by credit card
Smartpay is backed by Global Founders Capital (Europe), Matrix Partners (Silicon Valley), and SMBC VC (Japan) as it prepares global expansion with its solution powered by open banking.

“We have begun discussions with potential banking partners in other similar markets, such as KSA and Korea, to roll out our learnings and robust business model”, chief executive Sam Ahmed continued.

“We are delighted to be the first in Japan to provide digital consumer finance services which supports both credit cards and direct debit through a fully automated, single-click UX at the point of purchase. Our passion is helping consumers manage their cash flow in a smarter way, in a fast, safe and secure click. There are no additional fees or interest for the consumers. Since the launch of Smartpay just over a year ago, as Japan’s first BNPL solution payable by credit card, we have continued to expand our partner ecosystem with new retailers and an expanding customer base with revenue growth over 200% in the last three months. It’s interesting that we have lifted merchant average order value more than 30% in four different merchant categories. We attract higher value consumers for the merchant through our eKYC process.”온라인카지노


What’s News: A calendar of local events

Get your non-profit organization and church events in the Jacksonville Progress’s What’s News calendar free of charge by e-mailing your event information to The newspaper reserves the right to edit any submission for space and content.카지노사이트

NOTE: Some of the following events may be canceled at a later date. We have removed events that had been canceled as of press time.

Friday, Dec. 30 – Sunday, Jan. 1

Trail to Christ Cowboy Church, 5858 US 79 W., is hosting a youth retreat for students in sixth through twelfth grade beginning at 6 p.m Friday, Dec. 30 and ending at 10:30 a.m. Sunday, Jan. 1. The New Year’s Youth Retreat will feature laser tag, scavenger hunt, rodeo and more. To register, use the link posted on the Trail to Christ Cowboy Church Facebook page. For more information, contact Janae Halbert at 903-521-5017.

Saturday, Dec. 31

Jacksonville Game Night will be hosted from 5:30 to 8 p.m. Saturday, Dec. 31, at Postmasters Coffee, 402 E. US 79. Board games are provided, but participants are welcome to bring their own. The Chess Club will also meet during this time. Anyone with an interest in chess, regardless of skill level, is invited to participate.

Sunday, Jan. 1

The Lighthouse Church, located at 640 Dr. M. Roper Parkway in Bullard, invites the public to join the congregation in person at 10:30 a.m. Sunday, Jan. 1 for a time of worship, prayer and communion and again at 7 p.m. Monday through Saturday, Jan. 2 through 7, on Facebook live for prayer and communion. The intent is to begin 2023 with a renewed focus on Jesus.


A city-wide prayer gathering is being hosted at 6 p.m. the fourth Tuesday of each month at Hwy 69 Mission, 203 N. Jackson St. Believers of all denominations are invited to join together to seek God’s face and his purpose.바카라사이트

The Jacksonville Kiwanis Club meets weekly at noon on Thursdays at the Jacksonville College Library, 105 BJ Albritton Drive. For information on the Kiwanis Club, visit the website or their Facebook page.

Alanon Family Group meetings are held at 4 p.m. Thursdays at Trinity Episcopal Church, 1000 S. Jackson, in Jacksonville. If you love someone with a drinking addiction, Alanon can help you. There are no dues or fees. For more information, call Elizabeth at (903) 284-7311.

The Military Veteran Peer Network hosts regular meet and greet events 6-7 p.m. on the first Thursday of each month at 804 S. Main Street in Jacksonville. They also meet at 6 p.m. the first and third Thursday of each month at the Lion’s Club building, 540 W. 6th St., in Rusk. The organization provides supportive fellowship for veterans and their families. For more information, contact Bradley Erickson, Peer Services Coordinator, at 903-721-2078.

REMEMBER OR HONOR THE VETERANS IN YOUR LIFE. The Jacksonville Garden Club is selling commemorative bricks for veterans, both past and present, as a fundraising project. Information to be included on each brick includes the name of the service member with his or her rank, branch of service and years served. The bricks will be placed at Buckner Park’s Patriotic Pathway. The cost is $50 per brick. To order, contact Sandra Dickerson at 903-339-1395.

Explore Jacksonville is seeking volunteers of all ages and abilities to help at Love’s Lookout Park. For more information, contact (903) 339-3320.

County Roads Rescue, located at 601 Woodlawn Ave. in Jacksonville is accepting clean, bagged aluminum can donations between 9 and 11 a.m. Monday through Friday at the shelter. Email to arrange a drop-off.

Cherokee County veterans are invited to apply for federal grant funds offered through Habitat for Humanity of Smith County as part of the Housing Assistance Council Affordable Housing for Rural Veterans Initiative. Funds will provide renovations to make veterans’ residences accessible, healthy and safe. To apply, visit, or call (903) 595-6630.온라인카지노


New EU anti-deforestation law falls short, indigenous leaders say

Indigenous leaders from rainforests from Brazil to Indonesia say a new European Union law preventing the import into the bloc of key commodities linked to deforestation is insufficient to protect forests and will do little to bolster indigenous rights.카지노사이트

The legislation, agreed upon last week, will force firms supplying palm oil, cattle, soy, coffee, cocoa, timber and rubber – as well as some derived products such as beef or furniture – to the EU market to prove their supply chains are not fuelling the destruction of forests.

Brazilian indigenous leader Dinamam Tuxa said the law would help stem rising rates of deforestation across most of the Amazon basin – which spans nine nations including Brazil – but stressed that he did not think it was broad enough in scope.

The legislation does not cover deforestation from biodiverse areas outside of rainforests, such as wetlands, semi-arid forests, and savannahs that are also major carbon sinks and help to stave off climate change, according to Tuxa.

“This law should have been more ambitious. It leaves behind other important biomes,” said Tuxa, head of the Articulation of Indigenous Peoples of Brazil (APIB), an indigenous umbrella organisation.

For example, products from 600,000 square kilometres (231,600 square miles) of land in Brazil’s Cerrado savanna – the fastest growing frontier of agricultural expansion in the country – would not be subject to the law, said the Cerrados Institute, a non-profit.

An EU commission will consider no later than one year after the law comes into force whether to extend the regulations to include other wooded land, and within a period of two years if the law should also be broadened to include other ecosystems.

Deforestation is responsible for about 10 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions, according to climate scientists, and it is on the agenda at this week’s UN COP15 summit in Canada, where countries are seeking a global pact to protect nature.

Indigenous leaders said they are concerned that national laws protecting indigenous rights and local deforestation monitoring systems are not strong enough on their own to ensure the new EU law will be effectively implemented on the ground.

In Brazil, government agencies that can help monitor, verify and trace company supply chains to ensure compliance with the EU law must be strengthened after years of being undermined and underfunded by outgoing President Jair Bolsonaro, Tuxa said.

“There are many [government] monitoring mechanisms already in place in Brazil but nothing is working,” he said.

Brazil’s main environmental federal government enforcement agency, Ibama, and the indigenous affairs agency, Funai, have been particularly affected, he said.

‘Come up short’
The European Parliament’s lead negotiator Christophe Hansen has hailed the new EU measure as “innovative regulation”, and green groups hope it will significantly help protect fast-vanishing forests around the world.

Hansen’s office was unable to respond to a request for comment by deadline to criticisms of the EU law from indigenous leaders.

But in a statement following the announcement of the new law Hansen said “the rights of indigenous people, our first allies in fighting deforestation, are effectively protected.”

The legislation requires companies to produce a due diligence statement showing their supply chains are not contributing to the destruction of forests before they sell certain goods into the EU. Those who do not comply risk fines.바카라사이트

Although firms have to show that the rights of indigenous people were respected in their operations in commodity-producing nations, campaigners have raised concerns that this only applies to countries where those rights are already protected by national law.

Levi Sucre, an indigenous Bribri leader from Costa Rica, said he welcomed the EU law and its potential to tackle Latin America’s “alarming deforestation rates,” driven largely by the expansion of the agricultural frontier and monoculture farming.

But the legislation was “fragile”, he said, noting he feared it would put little extra pressure on governments in commodity-producing countries to ensure they respect the rights of indigenous people.

Across many Latin American countries, the rights of indigenous people are enshrined in state constitutions and local laws but are still too often flouted and ignored, Sucre added.

“Our rights are violated. The (EU) law isn’t going to change much for us in terms of access to justice and guaranteeing our rights,” said Sucre, who heads the Mesoamerican Alliance of Peoples and Forests (AMPB).

“There are shared economic interests between governments and companies. Who will verify that our rights are respected? That’s the big question,” Sucre said.

Indigenous rainforest leaders in Indonesia – the world’s top producer of palm oil and a leading exporter of coffee, rubber and cocoa – said national laws to protect the environment and indigenous land rights are not being implemented in practice.

The Global Alliance of Territorial Communities (GATC) – an alliance representing tropical forest peoples from more than 14 countries – said its indigenous leaders and members were “disappointed” the EU had not sufficiently strengthened their rights in its new legislation.

“The EU have placed our fate in the hands of the very governments that have violated our rights, criminalised our leaders and allowed an invasion of our territories,” the group said in a statement.

This story was published with permission from Thomson Reuters Foundation, the charitable arm of Thomson Reuters, that covers humanitarian news, climate change, resilience, women’s rights, trafficking and property rights. Visit온라인카지노


The History of Casino

Roulette invented by Francois Blanc

The single-zero wheel of roulette was invented by Francois Blanc. He was a businessman and owner of the famed Monte Carlo casino. The single-zero roulette wheel provided better odds to players. The game was soon dubbed the Devil’s game due to its addictive nature.카지노사이트

Evolution of gambling games

Evolution is a company that offers casino games and services to operators. The company charges a fixed fee to its customers to use its services. The company offers a variety of services, including private tables, VIP services, and native-speaking dealers. Evolution’s goal is to make casino gambling an exciting and unique experience for customers. These services are aimed at increasing casino revenues and increasing loyalty among existing customers.

Early slot machines

Early slot machines were simple mechanical games. They featured fruit symbols and prizes were paid out in sweets and chewing gum. A similar machine named Operator Bell, manufactured by Herbert Mills, was available in salons and tobacconists. It was one of the earliest mass-produced slot machines, and it used the BAR symbol, based on the logo of the Bell-Fruit company.


Blackjack originated in casinos in France in the 1700s. It was originally known as “Vingt-et-Un” and was a variation on the French game Chemin de Fer. During the reign of King Louis XV, it was played by the French Royal Court.


Macau was once a sleepy fishing village, but the Portuguese soon took over and turned the area into a thriving port. Portuguese sailors flocked to the area to conduct their business. The city soon became a stop on the Silk Road, and Portuguese sailors anchored their ships and set up warehouses there. Macau fell under Portuguese rule in 1557, and the Portuguese stayed in the area until 1863. The city became a hub for lucrative sea trade, and Macau became one of the most important ports in the world.

Mirage Hotel and Casino opened by Steve Wynn

The Mirage was opened in 1989 and was built by casino mogul Steve Wynn. Its features include a faux volcano that erupts each night and dolphin and tiger attractions. The Mirage is undergoing a transformation, as Hard Rock International, a New York-based company, plans to buy the casino and turn it into a Hard Rock Las Vegas. Hard Rock plans to open a new guitar-shaped hotel tower and replace the volcano attraction. The Hard Rock Las Vegas resort is expected to open in 2025.바카라사이트

Early betting houses

The first casinos opened in Italy in the seventeenth century. Venice’s Ridotto opened in 1638 and became the first state-sanctioned gambling house in Europe. Various private gambling dens followed. The word “casino” comes from the Italian word for “house,” and many of the casino games are derived from this origin. French explorers also opened their own casinos, which are still popular today.

Early casinos

In the mid-17th century, casinos first appeared in Europe. These gambling houses served as social places for the aristocracy. Some casino games have their origins in the aristocracy, including baccarat.

Early online casinos

The early days of online casinos were rough and unregulated. This led to poor security, and many players lost their money. At the time, there was no encryption technology and no way to protect sensitive information. This made it possible for anyone to hack into the system and steal information. This also allowed people to fraudulently withdraw money from players’ accounts.온라인카지노


Chinese cold on overseas travel even if COVID curbs ease: survey

More than half of Chinese will put off travel abroad for periods from several months to more than a year, even if borders reopen tomorrow, according to a survey, a sign that consumer recovery from COVID-19 measures will take time. 카지노사이트

Mainland China retains some of the world’s most stringent measures on PCR testing and quarantine for international travellers, despite some domestic easing of curbs after last month’s unprecedented COVID protests.

Fear of infection with the disease was the top concern of those saying they would postpone travel in a survey of 4,000 consumers in China released by consultancy Oliver Wyman, with worries about changes to domestic re-entry guidelines in second place.

“People have become cautious,” said Imke Wouters, a retail and consumer goods partner at the firm. “So even when they can travel, we don’t think they will come back right away.”

As many as 51 percent of those surveyed plan to delay international travel. And when they do, short-haul destinations will be the first to benefit, the consultancy said in its study, “China Consumption Recovery”.

The Asian financial hub of Hong Kong topped wishlists for travel, with 34 percent of respondents saying it would be their first stop after the reopening.

The late October survey followed the 20th Congress of the ruling Communist Party in Beijing, which brought President Xi Jinping a precedent-breaking third term as leader, at an event many had hoped would herald an opening up after COVID.

China was formerly the world’s largest outbound tourism market, but its overseas visitors, who spent $127.5bn on such trips in 2019, have virtually disappeared after it all but shut international borders in early 2020 and curbed non-essential travel by citizens.

China’s uncompromising “zero-COVID” effort hit the economy hard, and it is expected to reshape policies soon, though analysts have warned that any reopening will be bumpy and complex.

As many as 83 percent of the executives in China who responded to the survey said “a long road to consumer confidence recovery” was set to affect their mainland business over the next year.바카라사이트

While the report found consumer sentiment subdued by lockdowns and economic uncertainty, Wouters said Chinese consumers still showed a willingness to boost spending next year if conditions improve.

Nearly half, or 44 percent, of respondents cited an increase in personal savings as a reason they were likely to spend more next year.

China’s household deposits increased to 13 trillion yuan ($1.87 trillion) from January to September this year, up from 8.5 trillion yuan ($1.22 trillion) for the corresponding 2021 period.

Most spending in the next 12 months will focus on personal wellbeing in areas linked to health, fitness or wellness.

The outlier, according to Wouters, was Gen Z, the group born in the period spanning the late 1990s and the early 2010s, which would focus spending on “living in the moment”.

“We don’t expect to see the same boom in luxury spending that we saw in 2021,” she said. “But whatever growth we do see will be driven by Gen Z.” 온라인카지노


African Development Fund invests more than $6 million to strengthen public finance governance in African countries

The Board of Directors of the African Development Fund have approved a grant of $6.12 million to help strengthen public finance governance in low-income African countries.카지노사이트

The funding is for Phase 2 of the Regional Institutional Support Project in Public Finance Governance (RISPFG) which will be implemented by two pan-African institutions: the African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF) and the Collaborative Africa Budget Reform Initiative (CABRI). The grant, which was formally approved on 3 November 2022, will b e distributed as follows: $3.90 million to support the continent’s tax administration reforms and domestic resource mobilisation efforts through support to ATAF and $2.22 million to support budget reforms and strengthen public finance management through CABRI.

This project is a follow-on to a first phase approved by the African Development Bank in 2016 and successfully closed in September 2021 with both institutions (ATAF and CABRI). The project’s overall objective is to improve domestic resource mobilisation and public financial management in recipient countries, and help strengthen their efforts towards sustainable, inclusive growth and development. More specifically, it aims to improve African tax systems through technical capacity building, strengthening public financial management capacities and the integration of gender and climate change into taxation and public financial management. The project will also help countries build a common position and a stronger voice for the continent on regional and global platforms.

Abdoulaye Coulibaly, Director of the Governance and Public Financial Management Coordination Office at the African Development Bank, said that in addition to development results, the project also aimed to strengthen the resilience of national systems to various shocks, improve disaster preparedness and encourage the transition to low-carbon economies, through climate-smart budgeting and fiscal policies.

“The project will contribute to strengthening the actions of the Public Financial Management Academy, a virtual capacity building platform for African countries across the cycle and ecosystem of public financial management created in August 2022 by the Bank”, said Coulibaly said.바카라사이트

The project will help the countries of the African Development Fund who are members of the two implementing organisations. Their tax administrations as well as officials from ministries of finance will benefit from capacity building. The project will contribute to the development outcomes of the African continent and the achievement of various commitments, including financing for development, Agenda 2063 and Sustainable Development Goals. It will be implemented over a three-year period.

About the African Tax Administration Forum (ATAF)

The African Tax Administration Forum is an intergovernmental organisation composed of 40 African member states. Founded in 2009, its aim is to strengthen more effective and efficient tax systems in Africa, in order to reduce aid dependency, improve fiscal governance, reduce poverty and improve the daily lives of African citizens. In more than a decade of existence, it has been recognised globally and regionally as an expert institution, technical leader and authoritative voice on tax matters. Its secretariat is based in Pretoria, South Africa.

About the Collaborative Africa Budget Reform Initiative (CABRI)

Established in 2009, the Collaborative African Initiative on Budget Reform is an intergovernmental organisation that includes 17 African countries. Its mission is to strengthen the capacity of civil servants to implement reforms that ensure that public financial resources are managed with integrity, transparency and accountability. It serves as a learning and exchange platform for African Ministries of Finance, Budget and Planning. It currently works with more than 35 countries. The CABRI secretariat is also based in Pretoria, South Africa.온라인카지노


Legal Publication Requirements and the Decline of the Local Newspaper

According to a report by Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism, between late 2019 and the end of May 2022, more than 360 newspapers closed across the country — and since 2005, the United States has lost more than one-fourth of its newspapers and will likely lose a third by 2025. The closures of these newspapers results in “news deserts,” which lack local journalists to report on local issues. Between 1,300 and 1,400 communities that had local newspapers in 2004 now have no local news coverage at all.카지노사이트

Factors contributing to this decline include a decrease in revenues from digital and print newspaper sales, a decrease in advertising dollars, changing consumer preferences about news sources, and the purchase and consolidation of newspapers by hedge fund and other non-local investors, among other things.

This blog will explore what this trend means for Washington local governments, including as it relates to state-based legal publication requirements in an “official newspaper” or “newspaper of general circulation.” This blog will also cover the nuts and bolts of designation of an official newspaper.

Why Do Newspaper Closures Matter to Local Governments?

Research shows that when local newspapers close, corruption in local government increases and civic participation decreases. Fewer journalists covering local issues means there is less oversight of local government activities and decreased citizen engagement with local politics — including fewer people running for local office.

As noted in the Washington Post Magazine:

(W)hen we lose local journalism, we lose a fabric that holds together communities; we lose crucial information that allows democracy to function; and at the most basic level, we lose stories that need to be told.

In terms of day-to-day operations, Washington cities, towns, and counties are required to contract with a newspaper to function as their “official newspaper,” and publication/notice in an official newspaper or a “newspaper of general circulation” is required under numerous statutory schemes for all types of municipalities, including for special purpose districts.

Since so many local newspapers are reducing the frequency of publication (e.g., from weekly to monthly), decreasing circulation, consolidating with other newspapers, or closing altogether, public agencies have fewer options when it comes to selecting their official newspapers and to publishing notices. It also means that some local governments may need to change their official newspaper of record. Anecdotally, MRSC is hearing from jurisdictions that more errors in publication are occurring — raising concerns about meeting an agency’s legal notice obligations — and our website is seeing increased user searches related to official newspapers, indicating that this is likely an issue of growing concern for local governments.

What Are the Rules that Apply to the Designation of an Official Newspaper?

The requirements for designation of an official newspaper are found at RCW 35.21.875 for cities and towns, RCW 35A.21.230 for code cities, and RCW 36.72.075 for counties. The designation of an official newspaper may be done by resolution.

Few, if any, special purpose districts are required to formally designate an official newspaper. However, even if not required by statute, some special districts opt to designate a newspaper of record by resolution that is a newspaper of general circulation in the district.

Counties are to select a “legal newspaper” published in the county or, if there is no legal newspaper, a legal newspaper published in an adjacent county.

Cities and towns are to select a newspaper of “general circulation in the city or town and have the qualifications prescribed by chapter 65.16 RCW.“

Per RCW 65.16.020, the qualifications of a legal newspaper are:

(The) newspaper shall have been published regularly, at least once a week, in the English language, as a newspaper of general circulation, in the city or town where the same is published at the time of application for approval, for at least six months prior to the date of such application; shall be compiled either in whole or in part in an office maintained at the place of publication; shall contain news of general interest as contrasted with news of interest primarily to an organization, group or class; shall have a policy to print all statutorily required legal notices; and shall hold a periodical class mailing permit:

A legal newspaper must be designated as such by a superior court in the county in which it is published. See RCW 65.16.040.

A newspaper of “general circulation” is not defined in statute, however, the attorney general (AGO) has opined in the context of special meeting notice:

It may be said generally that a newspaper is one of general circulation, even though it is devoted to the interests of a particular class of persons, and specializes on news and intelligence primarily of interest to that class, if, in addition to such special news, it also publishes news of a general character and of a general interest, and to some extent circulates among the general public.바카라사이트

See AGO 1956 No. 257. See also Warner v. Miner, 41 Wash. 98, 82 P. 1033 (1905); Beutelspacher v. Spokane Sav. Bank, 164 Wash. 227, 2 P.2d 729 (1931); Times Printing Co. v. Star Pub. Co., 51 Wash. 667, 670, 99 P. 1040, 1042 (1909).

MRSC’s take on the AGO language and the cases on “general circulation” is that courts are deferential when the validity of publication is challenged if the publication was among the best available options at the time.

If there are two or more qualified newspapers serving the jurisdiction, the legislative body of cities, towns, and counties are to award a one-year contract through a bidding process. In a code city, there is neither a bidding requirement nor a limitation on the length of the contract, although a best practice suggests using bidding when there is more than one qualified newspaper serving the city (see MRSC’s City Bidding Book). We also have several examples of calls for bids for official newspapers in our Sample Documents Library.

When Is Publication in an Official Newspaper Required?

Many statutes require public agencies to publish notice in an official newspaper in advance of agency action being considered, immediately following the official action, or both. While this blog will not set forth a comprehensive list, below are just some of the instances when publication in an official newspaper is required:

All cities and towns are required to publish every ordinance or a summary thereof in their official newspaper. See RCW 35.22.288 (first-class cities); RCW 35.23.221 (second-class cities); RCW 35.27.300 (towns); and RCW 35A.12.160 and RCW 35A.13.200 (code cities).
Counties must provide advance notice of consideration of any police or sanitary regulations. See RCW 36.32.120(7).
Calls for bids for city and town projects subject to competitive bidding must be published either in an official newspaper or a newspaper of “general circulation most likely to bring responsive bid.” See RCW 35.23.352(1).
Final budget hearings must be advertised for two consecutive weeks in an official newspaper. See, e.g., RCW 35A.33.060 (code city annual budget) and RCW 35A.34.100 (code city biennial budget).
Many other statutes require that notice be published in a “newspaper of general circulation” within the jurisdiction or district (e.g., sale of surplus water-sewer district property, RCW 57.08.015; adoption of port district regulations, RCW 53.08.220; public utility districts call for bids for public works contracts RCW 54.04.070).

What Are the Options for Local Governments Struggling to Meet Publication Requirements?

We have been asked whether local governments can skip publication in an official newspaper and instead use other means of notice, such as publication on the agency’s website. Unless and until the legislature amends statutory publication requirements, local governments must continue to provide notice in an official newspaper whenever required by state law. Further, we have indicated that an “official newspaper” must be a printed newspaper, again, unless and until the legislature amends the qualifications for a legal newspaper. See RCW 65.16.020.

Final Thoughts
Given the decline of local news outlets, it may become increasingly difficult to find a newspaper that meets the statutory qualifications of an official newspaper, legal newspaper, or newspaper of general circulation. Local governments may need to cast wider nets, looking beyond their borders for a qualified newspaper. With some good fortune, perhaps this trend of growing news deserts will slow or reverse. There is substantial effort and funding going toward re-establishing and strengthening independent local journalism and news sources.

Finally, publication in an official newspaper is not the exclusive means to provide the public with notice about agency business. Many local governments can and do utilize additional tools such as social media, radio, local newspapers that are not the “official newspaper,” online publications, and other media in order to “get the word out.” Indeed, it is important to utilize a variety of forums to reach diverse constituencies (e.g., through publications specific to certain ethnic populations). See MRSC’s Community Engagement Resources webpage for creative and effective ways to engage and inform the public.온라인카지노